Gary T day

Case #1

Matter of Bay Needle Care Acupuncture v Country-Wide Ins. Co., 2019 NY Slip Op 07249 (2d Dept. 2019)

(1) ”  The arbitrator stated that he found “no reasonable or credible evidence” establishing the defense, and he found in favor of Bay Needle. On Country-Wide’s appeal, a master arbitrator vacated the original arbitrator’s award and remitted the matter for a new hearing before a new arbitrator. The master arbitrator stated that the evidence of fraudulent incorporation presented by Country-Wide “was substantial.” Bay Needle commenced this proceeding pursuant to CPLR article 75 to vacate the master arbitrator’s award. The Supreme Court granted the petition, vacated the master arbitrator’s award, confirmed the original arbitrator’s award in favor of Bay Needle, and entered a judgment accordingly. Country-Wide appeals. “

(2) ” We agree with the Supreme Court that the master arbitrator exceeded his power in vacating the original arbitrator’s award after, in effect, weighing the evidence and coming to a different conclusion than the original arbitrator as to what that evidence proved (see Matter of Petrofsky [Allstate Ins. Co.], 54 NY2d 207, 212). As such, we agree with the court’s determination to vacate the master arbitrator’s award and to confirm the original arbitrator’s award in favor of Bay Needle “

(3) ” Moreover, as Bay Needle contends and Country-Wide concedes, Bay Needle is entitled to an attorney’s fee for this appeal pursuant to 11 NYCRR 65-4.10(j), to be fixed by the Supreme Court “

It is strange to see the Second Department wade into the no-fault arbitration realm. The master arbitrator found a lack of proof and remanded. Now, if the master arbitrator found as a matter of law that the evidence was insufficient and dismissed, then the outcome would be different. Well, it should be different.

Let us not forget about the attorney’s fees. Applicant is using the one remaining provision of the regulations that allows a non NY style PIP attorney fee.

Case #2

Matter of V.S. Care Acupuncture, P.C. v Country-Wide Ins. Co., 2019 NY Slip Op 07264 (2d Dept. 2019)

(1) “On appeal, a master arbitrator affirmed the original arbitrator’s award, finding that it was not arbitrary and capricious. V.S. then commenced this proceeding pursuant to CPLR article 75 to vacate the master arbitrator’s award. The Supreme Court granted the petition, vacated the master arbitrator’s award, and entered a judgment in favor of V.S. in the amount of the claim for no-fault benefits plus statutory interest, attorneys’ fees, and costs and disbursements. Country-Wide appeals.”

(2) Contrary to the Supreme Court’s determination, V.S. failed to demonstrate any grounds for vacating the master arbitrator’s award. A court reviewing the award of a master arbitrator is limited to the grounds set forth in CPLR article 75, which include, in this compulsory arbitration, the question of whether the determination had evidentiary support, was rational, or had a plausible basis .

(3)  “[t]he determination of the master arbitrator affirming the original arbitrator’s award had evidentiary support and was not irrational, it is not subject to vacatur by the courts (see Matter of Motor Veh. Acc. Indem. Corp. v Aetna Cas. & Sur. Co., 89 NY2d 214, 223-224; Matter of Acuhealth Acupuncture, P.C. v New York City Tr. Auth., 167 AD3d 869), even if the master arbitrator committed an error of law

The Falzone standard is exacting and problematic. While we want arbitrations to be the end and now the beginning of a new round of litigation, the “mere error of law” test does not advance public policy. All it does is insulate bad PIP and UM arbitration decisions from further review. Real people get hurt when arbitrators make up the law as they go along.

Case #3

Matter of V.S. Care Acupuncture, P.C. v Country-Wide Ins. Co., 2019 NY Slip Op 07265 (2d Dept. 2019)

(1) “A master arbitrator’s review powers, however, do include reviewing the facts to determine “whether or not the evidence is sufficient, as a matter of law, to support the determination of the arbitrator” (id. at 212). Here, there is no rational basis for the determination of the master arbitrator that the original arbitrator committed an error of law in rejecting Country-Wide’s fraudulent incorporation defense “

(2) “Moreover, as V.S. contends and Country-Wide concedes, V.S. is entitled to an attorney’s fee for this appeal pursuant to 11 NYCRR 65-4.10(j), to be fixed by the Supreme Court.”

(1)  “The arbitrator, upon refusing to consider Country-Wide’s defenses on the ground that Country-Wide’s submissions to the arbitrator were late, with no excuse for their lateness, found in favor of Acuhealth. On Country-Wide’s appeal, the master arbitrator vacated the award and issued a new award in favor of Country-Wide based on the defense that Acuhealth was fraudulently incorporated, which the original arbitrator had refused to consider on the ground that it was untimely submitted. “

(2) ” Acuhealth then commenced this proceeding pursuant to CPLR article 75 to vacate the master arbitrator’s award. The Supreme Court granted Acuhealth’s petition, vacated the master arbitrator’s award in favor of Country-Wide, and confirmed the original arbitrator’s award in favor of Acuhealth. Country-Wide appeals.”

(3) ” An arbitrator acts within his or her discretionary authority by refusing to entertain late submissions (see Matter of Global Liberty Ins. Co. v Coastal Anesthesia Servs., LLC, 145 AD3d 644, 645; Matter of Mercury Cas. Co. v Healthmakers Med. Group, P.C., 67 AD3d 1017, 1017; Matter of Green v Liberty Mut. Ins. Co., 22 AD3d 755, 756). Here, in rejecting the original arbitrator’s proper exercise of his discretionary authority, and in passing, de novo, upon factual questions concerning the validity of Country-Wide’s defense that Acuhealth was fraudulently incorporated (see State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co. v Mallela, 4 NY3d 313, 320-321), the master arbitrator exceeded his power .”

I highlighted the “with no excuse for their lateness” but if you read Coastal Anesthesia, you can have the best law office failure excuse and the Courts will show no mercy. Here, the Court invaded the arbitration system and said it was not proper to substitute your discretion for that of the lower arbitrator. The Second Department acts in strange ways as to the defects in the arbitration system it will stick its head out and invade and the ones it won’t.

Case #4: The grand finale

Matter of Acuhealth Acupuncture, P.C. v Country-Wide Ins. Co., 2019 NY Slip Op 07246 (2d Dept. 2019)

(1 “A court reviewing the award of a master arbitrator is limited to the grounds set forth in CPLR article 75, which include, in this compulsory arbitration, the question of whether the determination had evidentiary support, was rational, or had a plausible basis (see Matter of Petrofsky [Allstate Ins. Co.], 54 NY2d 207, 212). Notably, the master arbitrator’s review power is broader than that of the courts’ because it includes the power to review for errors of law (seeid. at 211-212; 11 NYCRR 65-4.10[a][4]). In contrast, the courts “generally will not vacate an arbitrator’s award where the error claimed is the incorrect application of a rule of substantive law, unless it is so irrational as to require vacatur” (Matter of Smith [Firemen’s Ins. Co.], 55 NY2d 224, 232 [citations and internal quotation marks omitted]; see Matter of Liberty Mut. Ins. Co. v Spine Americare Med., 294 AD2d 574, 576 “

You will note that the First Department disagreed with the above statement: Matter of Global Liberty Ins. Co. v McMahon, 172 A.D.3d 500, 501 (1st Dept. 2019 (“Accordingly, because CPT Assistant is incorporated by reference into the CPT book, which is incorporated by reference into the Official New York Workers’ Compensation Medical Fee Schedule applicable to this claim under the No-Fault Law, the award rendered without consideration of CPT Assistant is incorrect as a matter of law (see 11 NYCRR 65-4.10[a][4])“)

(2) “Here, since Country-Wide submitted evidence tending to support its fraudulent incorporation defense, it cannot be said that the determination of the master arbitrator affirming the original arbitrator’s award lacked evidentiary support. Nor can it be said that the determination to affirm the original arbitrator, who supported her determination with reasons based on the evidence, lacked a rational basis. Thus, even if it was an error of law to conclude that Country-Wide proved its defense as a matter of law (seeNationwide Affinity Ins. Co. of Am. v Acuhealth Acupuncture, P.C., 155 AD3d 885, 886-887), the master arbitrator’s determination is not subject to vacatur by the courts on the mere basis of that error of law “

(3) “Notably, this Court’s decision in Nationwide Affinity, which is contrary to the conclusion of the master arbitrator in this case, was not published until after the master arbitrator’s award was rendered. Moreover, Country-Wide submitted evidence in support of its defense which, while inadmissible, could be considered by the original arbitrator in this case, who, unlike a court deciding a summary judgment motion like that at issue in Nationwide Affinity, was not bound by the rules of evidence “

This last case on GT day was remarkable. The Appellate Division finally told us that it does not have 4.10(a)(4) power, while the First Department said otherwise. Next, it allowed an award that violated settled precedent to stand. And finally, the Court for the first time I can remember explicitly held that an arbitrator is not bound by the rules of evidence. The flip side is that an arbitrator who demands compliance with the rules of evidence may run afowl of this rule? It is a hard one to tell, and I do not know the answer.

No jurisdiction

EMC Health Prods., Inc. v Maryland Auto. Ins. Fund, 2019 NY Slip Op 51316(U)(App. Term 2d Dept. 2019)

” In support of its motion, defendant alleged that it conducts no business in the State of New York, including that it does not issue insurance policies here, has no sales representative or agent within [*2]the state, and is not licensed to transact business within the State of New York. Plaintiff opposed the motion”

The motion was granted.

This case hearkens back to the bounds of jurisdiction in this State. While a Court may not be able to exercise personal jurisdiction, the deemer provision in the insurance contract combined with the compulsory arbitration law may lead to a different conclusion.

The powers of a court to vacate an arbitration award

Matter of Miller v Elrac, LLC, 2019 NY Slip Op 01544 (1st Dept. 2019)

(1) ”  Since the master arbitrator found that the no-fault arbitrator reached the decision in a rational manner and that the decision was not arbitrary or capricious, incorrect as a matter of law, in excess of policy limits, or in conflict with other no-fault arbitration proceedings there were no grounds for its vacatur; the motion court correctly upheld the master arbitrator’s determination “

(2) “Contrary to petitioner’s argument, there is no basis to conclude that the arbitrator made a mistake of law by ignoring whether petitioner’s condition could have worsened after respondent’s independent medical examination; she just made a factual determination that it had not “

My only comment on this case is that the lower arbitrator made two significant mistakes. First, the arbitrator said that Petitioner should lose because of a “gap in treatment”. Besides gaps in treatment having no applicability outside Ins Law 5102(d) motions, Petitioner suffered a fracture. Second, the Petitioner developed a tumor on the finger that broke and his condition declined subsequently. The lower arbitrator looked at all records until the one where the tumor arose. The record is clear.

Anyway, arbitration can be just that: arbitrary.

Lack of personal jurisdiction for an out of state insurance carrier

Pavlova v American Ind. Ins. Co., 2018 NY Slip Op 50943(U)(App. Term 2d Dept. 2018)

To me, this is the ultimate fight.  The accident occurred in New York and putting aside whether the deemer applies, you cannot drag the carrier into a NY Court.

“In this action by a provider to recover assigned first-party no-fault benefits, defendant moved to dismiss the complaint, pursuant to CPLR 3211 (a) (8), on the ground that the Civil Court lacked personal jurisdiction over defendant. In several affidavits in support of the motion, defendant’s employees asserted that defendant is a Pennsylvania company, which is not licensed to do business in New York, maintains no offices in New York, has no agents operating out of, or representatives soliciting business in, New York, and does not own, use or possess any real property in New York. Furthermore, defendant argued that it had been held in prior cases that the courts in the State of New York cannot exercise personal jurisdiction over this defendant. Plaintiff opposed the motion with an affirmation by its counsel, who made unsupported assertions that defendant had transacted business in New York by knowingly issuing policies to New York drivers, and that defendant had established an ongoing relationship with defense counsel in New York, thereby subjecting defendant to jurisdiction in New York. Defendant’s attorney asserted in a reply affirmation that the arguments raised by plaintiff had been rejected by this court in Compas Med., P.C. v American Ind. Ins. Co. (47 Misc 3d 134[A], 2015 NY Slip Op 50481[U] [App Term, 2d Dept, 2d, 11th & 13th Jud Dists 2015]). Defendant appeals from an order of the Civil Court entered August 11, 2016 denying defendant’s motion to dismiss the complaint.

Defendant made a prima facie showing that personal jurisdiction had not been obtained over it. “In opposing a motion to dismiss pursuant to CPLR 3211 (a) (8) on the ground of lack of personal jurisdiction, ‘a plaintiff need only make a prima facie showing that such jurisdiction exists’ ” (Hopstein v Cohen, 143 AD3d 859, 860 [2016], quoting Lang v Wycoff Hgts. Med. Ctr.[*2]55 AD3d 793, 798 [2008]). In the case at bar, the affirmation of plaintiff’s attorney was insufficient to demonstrate that personal jurisdiction over defendant existed under the Civil Court’s long-arm statute (see CCA 404 [a]), as plaintiff’s counsel failed to establish that he possessed personal knowledge of the facts”

I hate ending a post with a categorical statement that does not complete the story.  Assume Plaintiff filed an arbitration?

“While personal jurisdiction is required for the exercise of the state’s judicial power over a party, arbitration is a form of dispute resolution almost wholly independent of the court system (see Siegel, NY Prac § 586 at 1050 [5th ed 2011]). “Except for a few basic guarantees, such as the right to be heard and to be represented by counsel at the arbitration, the procedural law of the state is also inapplicable to arbitration, including the rules of  [***5] evidence” (id. at 1052). In short, personal jurisdiction is not required for arbitration that is controlled by the parties’ agreement. Therefore, the Supreme Court erred in granting the petition to permanently stay arbitration on the ground that there was no personal jurisdiction over AIIC.”  American Ind. Ins. Co. v Art of Healing Medicine, P.C., 104 A.D.3d 761, 763 (2d Dept. 2014)
And then, the Court held:  “Although this Court has held, HN5 in the context of claims for uninsured or supplemental underinsured motorist benefits, that ” ‘[a] party will not be compelled to arbitrate absent evidence affirmatively establishing that the parties expressly agreed to arbitrate their disputes’ ” (Matter of Progressive Specialty Ins. Co. v Louis, 122 AD3d 637, 638, 996 NYS2d 89 [2014], quoting Matter of State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co. v Juma, 44 AD3d 963, 963, 844 NYS2d 364 [2007]; see Matter of State Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co. v Torcivia, 277 AD2d 321, 715 NYS2d 75 [2000]), those cases do not apply to claims for the payment of first-party benefits, ostensibly because Insurance Law § 5106 (b) mandates every insurer to provide a claimant with the option to arbitrate disputes concerning first-party benefits. Indeed, the obligation to arbitrate is not found in the policies but is imposed upon the policies by the No-Fault Law”  Matter of American Ind. Ins. Co. v Nova Acupuncture, P.C., 137 A.D.3d 1270, 1272 (2d Dep,. 2018)
I guess Oleg should put on his Arbitration hat and leave Room 809 in Civil Court, Kings County for this one.

Infants compromise order not needed to proceed in arbitration in assignee case

Matter of Fast Care Med. Diagnostics, PLLC/PV v Government Employees Ins. Co., 2018 NY Slip Op 03831 (2d Dept. 2018)

“We agree with the Supreme Court that the arbitrator’s award was irrational and in conflict with CPLR 1209, which applies “only where an infant is a party” to an arbitration proceeding (Goldenberg v Goldenberg, 25 AD2d 670, 670, affd 19 NY2d 759; see Schneider v Schneider, 17 NY2d 123, 127). The infant patient was not a party to the arbitration; rather, Fast Care, as the infant’s assignee, was the party that brought the arbitration (see 11 NYCRR 65-3.11[a]). Therefore, we agree with the court that the arbitrator disregarded established law in determining that the requirements of CPLR 1209 applied here (Schneider v Schneider, 17 NY2d at 127; see Goldenberg v Goldenberg, 25 AD2d at 670). Furthermore, the master arbitrator’s determination that the assignment of benefits was not effective was not based on any requirement set forth in established law or regulations (see generally 11 NYCRR 65-2.4[c]).”

Bonus attorney fees: “Fast Care did not demonstrate its entitlement to an award of an attorney’s fee, as the arbitrator did not reach the issue of whether the subject claims were “overdue””

What is substantial evidence?

Matter of Marine Holdings, LLC v New York City Commn. on Human Rights, 2018 NY Slip Op 03303 (2018)

Every Article 75 compulsory arbitration case involving legal insufficiency or credibility of evidence claims is subjected to a substantial evidence review.  The term is a misnomer as we learned this week from the Court of Appeals:

“”Quite often there is substantial evidence on both sides” of an issue disputed before an administrative agency (Matter of Ridge Rd. Fire Dist. v Schiano, 16 NY3d 494, 500 [2011]), and the substantial evidence test “demands only that a given inference is reasonable and plausible, not necessarily the most probable” (id. at 499 [internal quotation marks and citation omitted]). Applying this standard, “[c]ourts may not weigh the evidence or reject [a] determination where the evidence is conflicting and room for choice exists” (Matter of State Div. of Human Rights (Granelle), 70 NY2d 100, 106 [1987]). Instead, “when a rational basis for the conclusion adopted by the [agency] is found, the judicial function is exhausted. The question, thus, is not whether [the reviewing court] find[s] the proof . . . convincing, but whether the [agency] could do so” (id. [citations omitted]).”

The Court’s abdication of the ability to review administrative awards that are inherently questionable but not “off the charts wrong” is improper.  We have three levels here.  The first is that the award has support.  The second is the award smells bad.  The third is the award is “off the charts wrong”.

We all agree the Courts have no business addressing level 1 and must address level 3.  It is level 2 that forms the basis of so many appeals.  I only suggest that a deeper look at level 2 cases is warranted.  The dissent (I did not publish it) did just that.

Arbitration is waivable

In my other life, I represent all sorts of people who have been wronged.  One of the worst things I encounter when advocating for people who have had their insurance coverage wrongfully disclaimed is the arbitration clause.  Imagine having to travel to California to file an arbitration when an insurance carrier abandons you prior to trial in NY  because you allegedly violated a condition of the medical malpractice policy?  It is reality, and the FAA will not protect you.

This case involves arbitration under Article 75 and a more reasonable standard in deciding whether the arbitration clause may be bypassed.  This is a good case – although it has so little to do with no-fault here in NY.  But, it is interesting.

Adams v Kent Sec. of N.Y., Inc., 2017 NY Slip Op 09274 (1st Dept. 2017)

“Applying the foregoing standard, we hold that plaintiff has made a preliminary showing that the fee sharing and venue provisions in the arbitration agreement have the effect of precluding him from pursuing his statutory wage claim in arbitration. We remand for further proceedings, consistent with Brady, which, at a minimum, would include proof of plaintiff’s income and assets, as well as proof of the expected costs and fees to arbitrate this dispute in Florida. Because the parties’ arbitration agreements contains a severability clause, in the event plaintiff prevails on his claim that the aforementioned fee sharing and venue provisions should be held unenforceable under Brady, the matter should proceed to arbitration in New York, with defendant to bear the costs of the arbitration.”

This time Country-Wide gets the Appellate Division to reverse AAA

Country-Wide Ins. Co. v Radiology of Westchester, P.C., 2017 NY Slip Op 01461 (1st Dept. 2017)

“The master arbitrator’s award was arbitrary because it irrationally ignored petitioner’s uncontroverted evidence establishing that the assignor failed to appear at the three scheduled examinations under oath (cf. Hertz Corp. v Active Care Med. Supply Corp., 124 AD3d 411 [1st Dept 2015]; Easy Care Acupuncture P.C. v Praetorian Ins. Co., 49 Misc 3d 137[A], 2015 NY Slip Op 51524[U] [App Term, 1st Dept 2015]).”

Again, the blame on this goes to the master arbitration system that rubber stamps the awards of the lower arbitrators.  I never read Petrofsky to require a master arbitrator to ignore evidence that proves a factual proposition or a well known legal principle.  These master arbitration awards (and I master arbitrate a lot of cases) usually affirm arbitrator awards because they believe that most review is out of their hands.  Read this case, Hillside, Professional Chiro and understand that legal challenges to lower arbitration awards are fair game. Factual challenges when there are no facts to support a key proposition of fact are fair game for review, but a closer call for affirmance than legal challenges.  There are other cases that are escaping me – but those involve MVAIC.

As an aside,  I have 7 masters on IME no shows (same date of loss and assignor/assignee) where the lower arbitrator misconstrued an IME letter and affidavit.  The error is as clear as the day is long.  That said, I am not going to blame the lower arbitrator because there was a lot going on in the file and he probably missed it.  Mistakes happen and that is why we have appellate courts and a master arbitration tribunal.  I have a feeling the master is going to affirm because of “Petrofsky” and it will take Supreme Court  to vacate the awards.


Rocket Docket – to the moon

Matter of Global Liberty Ins. Co. v Coastal Anesthesia Servs., LLC, 2016 NY Slip Op 08964 (1st Dept. 2016)

What’s interesting about this case is that the submissions were five days late (accompanied by a showing of law office failure in the moving memorandum of law) and Respondent provider did not object to the tardy submissions.  Rather, Respondent provider sought time to put in a rebuttal.   The arbitration was held 6 months following the uploading of the evidence.

Lower arbitrator Ann Lorraine Russo decided that rocket docket preclusion was proper and Master Arbitrator Donald DeCarlo gave his “Petrofsky” stamp of approval.  Clearly, I was displeased by what I sensed as a complete perversion of the regulation.

Supreme Court without directly saying it wrote that it did not agree with the rulings of the lower arbitrator but would not disturb what amounted to a broken arbitration system on this issue.  The Appellate Division did not want to get involved.   “The decision of the Master Arbitrator in affirming the arbitration award had evidentiary support, a rational basis, and was not arbitrary and capricious (see Matter of Petrofsky [Allstate Ins. Co.], 54 NY2d 207, 211 [1981]). The original arbitrator properly acted within her discretionary authority to refuse to entertain any late submissions proffered by petitioner (see 11 NYCRR 65-4.2[b][3]; Matter of Mercury Cas. Co. v Healthmakers Med. Group, P.C., 67 AD3d 1017 [2d Dept 2009]).”

At the end of the day, AAA and DFS needs to take a hard look (and I have sources who have said they will) at the application of 11 NYCRR 65-4.2.  This was the prototypical example of AAA just does not getting it and the courts turning a blind eye to a real problem.  I sense needed regulatory change is on the horizon.

Also remember that you (the participant) have the right to rate the performance of an arbitrator.  I just wish we could rate the performance of the master arbitrators.   But does anyone read what I wrote after I get a decision like this one?  smh.



Voluntary inter-company arbitration

Nationwide Mut. Ins. Co. v Geico Cas., 2016 NY Slip Op 51700(U)(App. Term 2d Dept. 2016)

(1) “Geico further stated, among its contentions, that Nationwide was aware of the policy’s $25,000 property damage limit, that the amount of damage to the three vehicles involved in the accident exceeded the property damage limit in the policy, and “is pending signed releases to issue all parties a pro rata amount for reimbursement.”

(2) “In its petition to confirm, Nationwide conceded that it had received $17,399.95 from Geico, but stated that it was still owed the remaining unpaid balance of $4,437.33.”

(3) The arbitrator, in a decision published on September 10, 2013, noted that Geico had not submitted a declarations page from the policy to confirm the policy limits, and awarded Nationwide the total sum of $22,337.28 ($21,837.28 plus a $500 deductible).

(4) Nationwide sought the remainder, which was granted.  Geico objected but lost.

(5) “Furthermore, where the arbitration agreement provides that the arbitrator may not make an award in an amount beyond the policy’s limits, an award in excess of those limits is subject to vacatur, pursuant to CPLR 7511 (b) (1) (iii), as an award in excess of the arbitrator’s power (see Matter of Brijmohan v State Farm Ins. Co., 92 NY2d 821 [1998]).”

(6) “The provision upon which Geico relies, however, is not a specific limitation on the power and authority of the arbitrator to make an award in excess of the policy’s limits. Instead, the provision affords Geico the option to reject arbitration, but Geico did not exercise that option.”

(7) Geico loses.

The lesson – reject voluntary arbitration when you sense the policy limits are going to be exceeded.