Robbing someone while they are chaging a tire is considered use and operation in Florida August 28, 2009
In light of the dearth of no-fault cases, I have devoted this week’s postings to interesting issues that have arisen in Florida no-fault law. Today’s case is from the Florida Supreme Court, and was decided in 1999. It should be noted that the issue of “use and operation” in New York is one that has created numerous conflicts between the Second Department and Third Department.
But, this case is really interesting in seeing how expansive the phrase “use and operation” of a motor vehicle is in Florida.
Blish v. Atlanta Causalty Company, 736 So.2d 1151 (Fla. 1999)
Karl Blish left work on January 6, 1995, drove a coworker home, spent a few minutes at the coworker’s house, and then headed home himself. Blish’s pickup truck had a blowout on U.S. 1 in Brevard County and he pulled over to change the tire. He jacked up the truck and was loosening the lug nuts when he was attacked from behind by several assailants. The men choked and beat him (he testified that he “might have went unconscious”) and stole between eighty and a hundred dollars from his pocket. After the attack, Blish recovered his glasses, did his best to finish changing the tire, and drove home (“I just barely got the tire on and I drove home.“). He did not go to the hospital or call police because he did not think that he had been hurt badly enough (“I was just going to write it off as a loss, I guess.“).
A week later, he experienced severe abdominal pain, was rushed to the hospital in an ambulance, and was diagnosed as suffering from a ruptured spleen, which doctors removed.
Under these circumstances, the actual source of the injury-causing blow is not dispositive–whether it came from a negligent driver in a passing vehicle or a violent group of passing thugs is not decisive. It was the use and maintenance of the truck that left Blish stranded and exposed to random acts of negligence and violence, and he was in the very act of performing emergency maintenance on the vehicle when he was injured.
Acts of violence are an ageless and foreseeable hazard associated with the use of a vehicle–for once a person sets out in a vehicle, he or she is vulnerable. The highwaymen and desperados of bygone times preyed on the wayfarer, and these villains are with us still. Each Floridian today, when he or she gets behind the wheel, faces a variety of dangers: a car-jacking at a stoplight, or a strong-arm robbery at a deliberately staged rear-end collision, or a road rage assault in rush hour traffic, or even a random shooting by an anonymous sniper from an overpass.
The danger is particularly acute when the motorist is stranded as the result of a disabled vehicle. The scenario in the present case is every motorist’s nightmare. Losses resulting from a violent encounter with this ageless road hazard–i.e., the highwayman or opportunistic thug–might reasonably be said to be very much in the contemplation of Florida consumers when they are contracting to purchase auto insurance. The motivation of the assailant–whether it be to “possess or use” the vehicle, or to steal the victim’s wallet or purse, or simply to harm the victim–is a nonissue to the consumer.
Compare, e.g., Hammond v. GMAC Ins. Group 56 AD3d 882 (3d Dept. 2008); Matter of Manhattan & Bronx Surface Transit Operating Authority, 71 AD2d 1004 (2d Dept. 1979). But see, Mazzarella v. Paolangeli, 63 AD3d (3d Dept. 2009); 1420Trentini v. Metropolitan Property and Cas. Ins. Co., 2 AD3d 957 (3d Dept. 2003).
Many thanks August 28, 2009
I would like to thank Roy Mura at coverage counsel for including this blog in his google search. The irony is that you never really know who is reading your blog until you come across something like that, while reading their blog.
As to Dave Gottlieb’s beard from nofaultparadise, my vote is for him to keep the shaved head, non-facial hair look. That beard is a public health hazard. Please leave your comments on his blog as to what you think…
The District Court of Appeal, Third Division answered this question in the affirmative.
In the matter of Millennium Diagnostic Imaging Ctr., Inc. v. United Auto Ins. Co., 975 So. 2d 1149 (Fla. 3d DCA 2009), the Court held the following:
The language in section 627.736(4)(b) pertains to PIP benefits that are “due” under the policy. If a medical bill is submitted for treatment that is not reasonable, related, or necessary, there can possibly be no benefits “due” under the policy, and therefore, that claim cannot be deemed “overdue.” Section 627.736(4)(b) provides that the insurer can assert, “at any time, including . . . after the 30-day time period for payment,” that “the claim was unrelated, was not medically necessary, or was unreasonable.”
Based on the unambiguous language of section 627.736(4)(b) and applicable case law, we answer the certified question, as phrased by the trial court, in the affirmative, and conclude that the thirty-day time period set forth in section 627.736(4)(b) does not apply to claims for unrelated, unreasonable, or unnecessary treatment. Therefore, an insurer may challenge such treatment at any time, and is permitted to rely on a report, obtained pursuant to section 627.736(7)(a), even if the report is obtained more than thirty days after the claim was submitted. The insurer, however, must keep in mind that if its challenge fails, it will be liable for interest and attorney’s fees.
Oh I forgot to add that I was referencing Florida law. Compare, Bronx Expert Radiology, P.C. v. New York Cent. Mut. Fire Ins. Co. 24 Misc.3d 134(A)(App. Term 1st Dept. 2009); Dilon Medical Supply Corp. v. New York Cent. Mut. Ins. Co., 18 Misc.3d 128(A)(App. Term 2d Dept. 2007).
The timeliness of follow-up additional verification requests will be argued before the Appellate Division, Second Department August 19, 2009
The issue involving whether a premature follow-up additional verification request may be deemed valid is now before the Appellate Division, Second Department. The case of “Infinity Health Products v. Eveready Insurance Company”, is slated for oral arguments on September 11, 2009.
The best evidence rule under fire August 14, 2009
Madison-68 Corp. v Malpass 2009 NY Slip Op 06154 (1st
“Plaintiff’s objection, made under the best evidence rule, to the admission of the lease rider was properly overruled because it had offered into evidence a copy of the same document.”
First, we saw the end of the New York rule. Now, we have a curtailment of the Best Evidence rule. I am not sure we can cite to Prince Richardson, the Farrell edition, in order to fully understand New York evidence law. Henry David Thoreau said it best: “Any fool can make a rule, and any fool will mind it.”